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Dynamic Role of Macrophage Sub Types on Development of Atherosclerosis and Potential Use of Herbal Immunomodulators as Imminent Therapeutic Strategy

Author(s):

Parimalanandhini Duraisamy, Sangeetha Ravi, Mahalakshmi Krishnan, Catherene M. Livya, Beulaja Manikandan, Koodalingam Arunagirinathan and Manikandan Ramar*   Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Atherosclerosis, a major contributor to cardiovascular disease is a global alarm causing mortality worldwide. Being a progressive disease in the arteries, it mainly causes recruitment of monocytes to the inflammatory sites and subside pathological conditions. Monocyte-derived macrophage mainly acts in foam cell formation by engorging the LDL molecules, oxidizes it into Ox-LDL and leads to plaque deposit development. Macrophages in general differentiate, proliferate and undergo apoptosis at the inflammatory site. Frequently two subtypes of macrophages M1 and M2 has to act crucially in balancing the micro-environmental conditions of endothelial cells in arteries. The productions of proinflammatory mediators like IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α by M1 macrophage has atherogenic properties majorly produced during the early progression of atherosclerotic plaques. To counteract cytokine productions and M1-M2 balance, secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) from plants act as a therapeutic agent in alleviating atherosclerosis progression. This review summarizes the fundamental role of the macrophage in atherosclerotic lesion formation along with its plasticity characteristic as well as recent therapeutic strategies using herbal components and anti-inflammatory cytokines as potential immunomodulators.

Keywords:

Atherosclerosis, macrophages, Ox-LDL (oxidized low-density lipoprotein), cytokines, immunomodulators, curcumin.

Affiliation:

Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Department of Biochemistry, Annai Veilankanni’s College for Women, Chennai - 600 015, PG & Research Department of Zoology, Sir Theagaraya College, Old Washermenpet, Chennai - 600 021, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025



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