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Pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and role of vitamins, herbal extracts in the reduction of cardiovascular risks


Ravindra Kumar, Sujata Malik, Reena Tiwari, Saule Bazarbaevna Zhautivova, Abdikadirova Hamida Rakhimovna, Tilak Raj and Punit Kumar*   Pages 1 - 12 ( 12 )


Background: Heart disease (cardiovascular disease: CVD) is considered as the leading cause of worldwide death. These diseases are recognized as group of disorders which are related to heart and blood vessels. Generally, heart diseases are considered life style associated diseases but many other factors are also found associated with cardiovascular diseases.

Objective: The aim of this review is to provide the till date information regarding local and circulatory disorders, role of different vitamin and herbs on heart diseases.

Methods: This review article contains a detailed survey of literature about cardiovascular diseases which was available in different online databases such as; PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Elsevier, and Google Scholar etc. In this review, authors have focused on description of cardiovascular disorders, their pathophysiological properties and importance of micronutrients, vitamins and herbs in management of cardiovascular diseases.

Results: Cardiovascular diseases are considered the responsible approximately for 17.9 million deaths annually at global level. Surprisingly, low- and middle-income countries counts for 75% of CVD deaths. These diseases represents disorders related circulatory systems specially heart and coronary arteries. Many life style associated factors such as; high cholesterol consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, metabolic disorders, stress, and other factors such as; family history, age, gender and genetic factors etc have been found involved in establishment of CVDs. That’s why management of diet, management of tobacco and alcohol consumption, management of stress, increased physical activities are considered population wide strategies for control cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of pathophysiology, heart diseases are of many types and out of them acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are considered serious and catastrophic cardiac disorders. Intake of vitamins, micronutrients, lycopene, omega 3 fatty acid and many herbs like Crataegus oxyacantha (Hawthron), Allium sativum (garlic), Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi), Ginkgo biloba have been identified good for cardiovascular diseases management and treatment.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular dieseases are considered one of the fatal clinical conditions as many of them are asymptomatic. The regulation of diet, increased physical activities, and health life style are recommened to control development of cardiovascular problems. Including this, scintific studies have supported the role of many vitamins, nutrients and herbs as beneficial in cardiovascular diseases but many of them could not demonstrate their role at clinical level but it is suggested that their role as nutriens can not be ignored and their consumption may reduc the cardiovascular risks.


Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, shock, ischemia, myocardial infarction, stenosis, herbs, omega-3-fatty acid


Department of Pathology, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kalyanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh – 208016, Department of Morphology and Physiology, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Department of Pathology, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Department of Pathology, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Department of Zoology, Pt. Neki Ram Sharma Government College, Rohtak, Haryana 124001, Department of Clinical Immunology, Allergology and Microbiology, Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda

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