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Antithrombotic / Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease and after Acute Coronary Syndrome

Author(s):

Jose B. Cruz Rodriguez*, Kunal Mishra and Tariq Siddiqui   Pages 1 - 14 ( 14 )

Abstract:


The major physiopathological mechanism underlying acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is atherosclerotic plaque rupture with resultant coronary thrombosis, posing a big burden in health care systems. Dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) can improve CV outcome with a prolonged regimen, albeit at the cost of increased bleeding rates. We performed a narrative literature review on the topic, in which we explore databases through April 15th, 2020, with no restrictions on language. Key words of antiplatelet therapy, P2Y12 inhibitor, aspirin and DAPT were utilized. Randomized clinical trials, large prospective studies, systematic reviews and metanalysis were included. We hand-searched the reference lists of included articles and relevant reviews. The review revealed that when choosing antiplatelet agents, the decision should be driven by pharmacodynamic properties as well as demonstrated efficacy and safety. Additionally, it was noted that in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, prasugrel and ticagrelor are preferred. In patients with high risk of bleeds or receiving thrombolysis, or when cost or specific patient issues exist, clopidogrel is considered though is a second-line therapy. Due to an elevated risk of bleeds, triple therapy should be avoided, as evidence shows effectiveness and safety with regimens without ASA. Furthermore, multiple studies have also shown that regimens shorter than 12 months of DAPT could be adequate for many patients, and newer guidelines are likely going to reflect it. There are specific recommendations for switching among antiplatelets, mostly based on registries and pharmacodynamic studies.

Keywords:

Antiplatelet therapy, P2Y12 inhibitor, aspirin, dual antiplatelet therapy.

Affiliation:

Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Texas Tech University Health Science Center El Paso, El Paso,, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center El Paso, El Paso,, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Texas Tech University Health Science Center El Paso, El Paso



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