Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


p-Cymene Modulate Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Murine Macrophages: Potential Implication in Atherosclerosis

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Tong Wu, Zahra Mazhar, Dhuha Alsayrafi and Mahdi Garelnabi*   Pages 151 - 157 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: p-Cymene (p-CYM) is a common chemical used in air fresheners.

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the molecular effect of p-CYM on macrophages.

Materials and Methods: Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were treated with p-CYM (50 uM/L, 150 uM/L and 250 uM/L) for 6 hours, and 24 hours). Gene involved in inflammation, such as the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) and other genes known for their antioxidant activity such as the Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) were analyzed.

Results: Cells treated with p-CYM have shown 30% up-regulation of MCP-1 after 24 hour of exposure; and also a differential up-regulation of TNF-α. However, treatment with p-CYM has resulted in a considerable (37%) dose-dependent downregulation of PON-1 after 24 hours of exposure. PON-1 is known for its antioxidant properties protecting High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) from oxidation.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that exposure to p-CYM over time promotes oxidative stress by downregulating antioxidants genes as shown in PON-1 and also stimulates inflammation, a key process during the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.

Keywords:

Atherosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, p-Cymene, macrophages, High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL).

Affiliation:

Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, Department of Clinical Laboratory and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article