Submit Manuscript  

Article Details

Pernicious Anemia: Fundamental and Practical Aspects in Diagnosis

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 1 ]


Aung Myint Tun, Kyaw Zin Thein, Zin War Myint and Thein Hlaing Oo*   Pages 17 - 22 ( 6 )


Background: Pernicious Anemia (PA), the most common cause of cobalamin deficiency anemia worldwide, is an autoimmune disease of multifactorial etiologies involving complex environmental and immunological factors. Although it was first reported by Addison in 1849 with subsequent advances in understanding of pathogenesis and molecular biology, diagnosis of PA is still challenging for clinicians because of its complexity and diverse clinical presentations.

Conclusion: Herein, we provide an overview of PA, mainly focusing on its scientific and practical aspects in diagnosis. We also discuss the limitations of currently available diagnostic tools for the evaluation of cobalamin deficiency and PA.


Pernicious anemia, pathophysiology, diagnostic challenges, fundamental aspects, practical approach, cobalamia deficiency.


The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, New York, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Section of Thrombosis & Benign Hematology (Unit 1464), 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030

Graphical Abstract:

Read Full-Text article