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Fondaparinux for Management of Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia after Cardiovascular Intervention: A Systematic Review

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Vijaya R. Bhatt, Sumit Dahal, Vivek Verma, Prem Shukla, Nabin Khanal, Ranjan Pathak and Smith Giri   Pages 82 - 86 ( 5 )

Abstract:


Objectives: The efficacy and safety of fondaparinux, an emerging therapeutic option for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), remain unclear in cardiac surgery patients with HIT.

Methods: Using several search criteria, we reviewed all cases of fondaparinux use in patients who developed HIT after any cardiovascular intervention and were indexed in MEDLINE by August 2014. Based on pre-specified criteria, cases were divided into confirmed HIT, probable HIT and possible HIT. The outcome of fondaparinux use in each group was compared using Chi-square test.

Results: Of 43 total cases, 22 had confirmed HIT and 21 had possible HIT. Valve replacement or repair (39%) and heart transplant or ventricular assist device placement (21%) were the most common preceding cardiovascular interventions. Creatinine clearance <30 ml was present in 27% and 52% of confirmed and possible HIT respectively. Overall the risk of new thrombosis and bleeding with fondaparinux were 4.6% and 7% respectively, without any differences in the two subgroups. The majority (86%) of cases improved clinically; of the remainder patients, similar percentage of cases with possible HIT and confirmed HIT died (24% vs. 5%; p= 0.102). None of the deaths were attributed to HIT or complications of bleeding.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the risk of thrombosis and bleeding with fondaparinux use in cardiac surgery patients with HIT are low and largely comparable to outcomes reported in literature with other agents.

Keywords:

Cardiovascular, fondaparinux, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, intervention.

Affiliation:

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology- Oncology, 987680 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7680, USA.

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